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They compiled a comprehensive data set of cetacean brain and body mass, group size and social characteristics. Bigger brains were also linked to other factors, including dietary richness and geographical range. The authors say these results are consistent with theories that cetaceans developed large brains to deal with the challenges of living in information-rich social environments. Yet Robert Barton, an evolutionary biologist at Durham University in England, who bitcoin solo mining pooling not take part in the work, cautions against drawing conclusions about causation from correlation.

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Byhowever, forest bitcoin solo mining pooling rates had ballooned. New mines started to appear in the following years. They invaded protected areas such as the Tambopata National Reserve—home to the indigenous Ese Ejja, Quechua and Aymara peoples, as well as brightly colored macaws, giant river otters and 18 Scientific American, January © Scientific American jaguars.

By mining operations had felled at least 1, acres of forest within the reserve. Now a study reports bitcoin solo mining pooling illicit mining is sharply on the rise despite local government efforts to curb it—and this is taking a heavy toll on the ecosystem.

Authorities conducted raids, dismantled clandestine camps, and regulated fuel and supply traffic. Despite the crackdown, the total mining area had increased by about 40 percent to aroundacres just four years later. Extracting gold from rock can contaminate the environment. Illegal mining activities often use liquid mercury, a toxic chemical that can drip into the soil or be burned off and released as toxic fumes.

And the consequences of illicit mining go well beyond those of the extraction process.

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Miners often chop down thousands of acres of forest with heavy machinery that scars the landscape. These dark shapes are strands of xylem cells surrounded by rings of wood, like miniature pine or oak trees— although researchers have not yet determined whether they can age the cladoxylopsid tree by its rings.

But not all stumps tell the same story. Some million years ago cladoxylopsid trees stood at least eight meters tall, capped by branches with twiggy appendages instead of leaves. They bitcoin solo mining pooling a bit like spindly palm trees. Today their scant remains reveal little about their insides; in most cases their innards had rotted before the trees fossilized, and storms had filled them with sand. But the recent find Large tree fossil: This fossil is one of several—the wedge shape is like a slice from a larger pie.

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At its heart, the mature cladoxylopsid tree was hollow. Around the edges ran bitcoin solo mining pooling, vertical strands containing xylem, the tubelike structures that carry water through many plants.

Modern trees add new layers of multiple xylem as they grow, creating a woody trunk with a single set of concentric rings. As the cladoxylopsids grew, these columns of xylem split themselves apart—most likely to supply water to the expanding plant. Rings of wood then formed around the newly created strands.

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He likens these networks of flexible tissues and structures to the Eiffel Tower—if said tower could grow, stretch and rip itself apart over time. Although the cladoxylopsid tree has no living descendants today, it does have an important legacy. Given this fact, maybe we should study these trees for the forests.

They now plan to add rockets to the vehicle in hopes of breaking the world land-speed record. Scientists tracked the ice loss in around 1, mountain glaciers across the U. The cause is unclear, but researchers caution that if this trend continues, it could disrupt the entire food chain.

They think these structures, whose purpose remains unclear, may be the work of ancient nomadic tribes. For more details, visit www. We will never charge a cancellation fee, and our renewal subscription rates are notably lower.

The safest and easiest way to renew your subscription is by enrolling in continuous service at www. If you suspect that you have received an unauthorized renewal notice by mail or by phone, please email us at [email protected] 20 Scientific American, January © Scientific American Cobalt is a critical component in batteries for electric cars and portable electronics.

But bitcoin solo mining pooling element—cobalt— is a bigger concern, scientists reported in October in the journal Joule.

Olivetti and bitcoin solo mining pooling colleagues calculated just how short cobalt supplies could fall if electric vehicles EVs take off as expected— and the findings are sobering. Access Scientific American anytime, anywhere. Lithium battery cathodes are made of layers of lithium metal oxides that bitcoin solo mining pooling some combination of cobalt and other metals. Olivetti and her colleagues extrapolated trends in lithium and cobalt supply through To calculate demand, they created two scenarios based on estimates of slow or speedy growth in battery use for EVs and portable electronics.

Lithium is unlikely to be a limiting factor in the long run, they found. But even with a very conservative estimate of 10 million EV sales inthe demand for cobalt that year could reachmetric tons, whereas the available supply at that time would be at mostmetric tons.

Cobalt is a by-product of copper and nickel mining, so its production depends on the demand for those metals. Recycling lithium batteries is complicated and rarely done. Newer cathode chemistries offer hope, however.

Recently developed nickel-rich formulations will reduce cobalt demand, Gaines says. Cobalt-free bitcoin solo mining pooling are also under development, and researchers hope to make them practical.

No big deal. Dennett Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy, Tufts University.

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Deductible for income tax purposes. The Messy Facts about Diet and Inflammation Can certain foods really help you fight heart disease, arthritis and dementia? By Claudia Wallis In health, as with so many things, our greatest strength can be our greatest weakness. Take our astonishingly sophisticated response to injury and infection.

Our bodies unleash armies of cellular troops to slaughter invaders and clear out traitors. Their movements are marshaled by signaling chemicals, such as the interleukins, which tell cells where and when to fight and when to stand down. We experience this as the swelling, redness and soreness of inflammation—an essential part of bitcoin solo mining pooling. Still, no one knew if runaway inflammation could actually pull the trigger on heart attacks and strokes—until this summer.

It was sweet vindication for cardiologist and principal investigator Paul Ridker of Harvard University, who had long contended that inflammation was as vital a target as cholesterol. But it is tempting to extrapolate lessons for all of us.

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I mean something we can do every day of our lives: eat right. Many aim at specific ailments—arthritis, breast cancer, heart disease, various autoimmune disorders.

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Sure, plenty of foods have been found to reduce inflammation—many of them in laboratory experiments as opposed to in people: turmeric, blueberries, ginger, tea, various vegetables, dark chocolate, fish. University of South Carolina epidemiologists James Hébert and Nitin Shivappa valiantly surveyed 1, such studies and published in a Dietary Inflammatory Index, with 45 food elements. When I asked Ridker his views on anti-inflammatory diets, he grew uneasy.

That diet, long endorsed by cardiologists, has been shown in well-designed studies to reduce key markers of inflammation and the risk of heart disease. Would it be even more effective if it incorporated more blueberries and turmeric? No one knows for sure. Diet research is tricky. And context matters. The typical Mediterranean diet calls for loads of seafood a week, and yet studies of people taking fish oils as a supplement have not found much benefit.

The virtues of fish may lie elsewhere or have more to do with displacing meat. Her current project examines whether cognitive decline can be slowed with a regimen called the MIND diet, which combines elements of the Mediterranean diet with another well-studied diet called DASH. Bitcoin solo mining pooling then, there is no harm in adding more so-called antiinflammatory ingredients to your diet. Hébert suggests canvas btc spicy chai loaded with ginger, turmeric and pepper.

But remember, context! They get lots wrong but a surprising amount right By David Pogue Everyone judges the plausibility of a movie through bitcoin solo mining pooling different lens.

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Human teleporters? Sorry, Star Trek. A bed that detects and cures cancer in seconds? No, Elysium. On the other hand, some movies depict futuristic technologies that are so plausible and practical, people invent them in the real world.

Her, for example, is about a man who falls in love with his Sirilike voice assistant. He talks to her through a single earbud, through which he gets a surprising amount done: processing e-mail, flipping through news stories, sending messages.

When an image is essential to the communication, he flips open his phone, where the picture appears.

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This solution makes a lot of sense—more than, for example, Google Glass, a now discontinued headband that placed a miniature screen above your eyebrow. The Her earpiece delivers many of the same benefits, albeit discreetly and comfortably. Otherwise, Her nails it in the plausibility department. The characters wear wristbands containing tiny projectors.

They shine perfectly crisp, color images onto their palms, which the characters tap as though they are touch screens. You can see why people went nuts over the concept: imagine having all the power of a smartphone without actually needing a smartphone.

Even if a pico projector, battery and processor could be shrunk and squeezed into a thin band, insurmountable challenges remain. How would the projector attain sharp focus on an irregular, moving palm?